Comments on: How to Ensure Environmental Sustainability? Making the Millennium Development Goals Happen Tue, 25 Jan 2011 13:09:41 +0000 hourly 1 By: Andrew Eder Andrew Eder Tue, 23 Nov 2010 16:56:58 +0000 Promoting Sustainable Agricultural Practices in the Coffee Industry

TechnoServe is a non-profit organization focused on facilitating business solutions to poverty. We help entrepreneurial men and women in poor areas of the developing world to build businesses that create income, opportunity and economic growth for their families, their communities and their countries. At TechnoServe we believe that a healthy planet is an integral part of a sustainable business.

Across Africa, 66 percent of cropland is severely degraded, with that percentage rising as growing populations, increasing production demand and the stress of climate change take their toll. The adoption of sustainable agricultural practices has proven to be one of the most important means of adaptation for the millions of small-holder African farmers who depend on the land for their livelihoods.

In East Africa, the TechnoServe Coffee Initiative remains focused on sustainable production at all levels of the coffee supply chain, from farmers to exporters. We promote sustainable coffee production, environmental responsibility, social responsibility and ethics, occupational health and safety, and economic transparency. TechnoServe supports farmers with on-the-ground training and technical assistance to learn the principles and implement the activities that will help them to achieve sustainability.

For example, to lessen the impact of coffee processing on water resources, TechnoServe has helped farmer groups to install ecological wet-milling machines that can use up to 90 percent less water than traditional disc-pulping machines with full fermentation. To manage the waste water from coffee production, TechnoServe is providing farmers with the technical assistance to construct Vetiver wetlands: a biological filter that takes advantage of the significant purification and water uptake properties of the Vetiver grass. Vetiver is traditionally used for erosion control and the treatment of sewage or hazardous wastes; its application as a means of mitigating the waste water from coffee processing is an innovative approach to developing affordable, effective waste-water management.

Our agronomy program advises farmers on sustainable agricultural practices, offering hands-on training to promote increased yields and improved coffee quality. We work with farmers over a two-year period to adopt sustainable coffee management practices. A key practice is effective nutrition and soil management. Working with local research organizations, we have conducted extensive soil and leaf surveys so that farmers have area-specific nutritional programs based on their local conditions. The soil-management program focuses on the use of homemade compost, lime, mulching and soil erosion control, as well as inorganic fertilizer applications where required. We are currently trialing the production of a liquid fertilizer from waste coffee pulp using vermiculture (worms). Other important best practices are integrated pest, disease and weed management, pruning and rejuvenation, promotion of shade using indigenous species and record keeping.

In addition to our work at the producer level, TechnoServe seeks market linkages with industry leaders who value sustainability. We strive to promote demand for sustainably produced coffee so that our producers are supported in their efforts to manage their land and businesses responsibly. Our sustainability program provides a structured means by which farmers, smallholder/estate coffee enterprises and exporters can achieve stable growth. These farmers/enterprises are thus fundamentally more prepared to succeed.

Ultimately, Technoserve’s sustainability initiative can encourage community development and improve local infrastructure by ensuring the cultivation of local knowledge and the formation of strong businesses.

By: Duffy Malherbe Duffy Malherbe Sun, 21 Nov 2010 13:26:40 +0000 Denturism as a healthcare innovation improving efficiency by direct denture provision.

Denturists are specifically trained denture-experts, personally responsible for both clinical and technical procedures as well as direct communication with the consumer, unlike the customary fragmented system through a go-between. They are more efficient and create individualized and optimally constructed functional dentures to meet the consumer’s personal preferences, well-being and affordability.

As dentistry developed from the era of the tooth-puller and charlatan to become a learned profession, the right to make dentures were also added to the domain. This international phenomenon was established through customary practice and not by logical association . Dentists care for and conserve natural teeth, and prevent and treat diseases of the mouth and its consequences. Dental curricula have slowly but inevitably de-emphasized the technical component in favour of the biological basis of dentistry . Undoubtedly dental trainees are currently qualifying with fewer technical skills needed to meet the routine requirements of general practice, than in the past. In denture prosthodontics, technical proficiency and clinical skills can only be acquired after hundreds of hours of laboratory and clinical hands-on time2.

Worldwide dental technicians make dentures blindly and too often have to remake (free of charge) due to the communication-barrier with the consumer and the deficiency of the fragmented go-between system. This underscores the desire for direct provision of dentures . Denturists are dental technicians who have expanded their education and clinical skills to qualify as expert public denture practitioners – as their dedicated calling . Denturist-practice includes clinical procedures, but they are to begin with the skilled manufacturers of these appliances4. A course devoted to specializing in denture prosthodontics renders the Denturist superior to the dental graduate in this respect2. This training also includes clinical skills and oral pathology recognition.

Denturists have an explicitly defined role in terms of construction, fitting, patient aftercare and care of artificial teeth (dentures), after patients have already lost their natural teeth4. One and the same person performs both chair-side and dental laboratory work, resulting in a superior end product, simply by bringing all the fragmented procedures of denture provision together . Direct consultation between the service provider and consumer circumvents miscommunication and clumsy, often-preventable repetition of some extended procedures, commonly associated with the customary system of working through a go-between .

Organized dentistry views the emergence of denturism as professional encroachment on their vested interests . Denmark is the only country in the world where dentists never managed to monopolize denture provision for their exclusive domain. Due to the overpowering monopolization and the one-sided anti-denturism propaganda, there is little awareness or recognition for denturists in countries where the category is not yet legislated. Typically, unsubstantiated health scare tactics are used to intimidate the uninformed . The pattern of delaying tactics is predictably similar globally8, until the profession eventually becomes instituted and normalized. The quest for introducing denturism concerns building the Oral Health Team and is pro-denture wearer, not anti-dentistry . The addition of this denture-dedicated category is essentially not about dentists having to give up any rights, but simply about introducing an additional choice of service provider to the dental consumer10. Denturists evolved as healthy competition for dentists to liberate market forces . The monopoly for dentists is being reversed as Denturism is slowly gaining recognition globally , with 40 independent pieces of legislation passed to date. In many countries costly investigations were conducted by Restrictive Practice Commissions and Competition Boards11 to reinstate Free Enterprise and to identify and abolish monopolies and cartels created by dental legislation that were not desirable or in the dental consumer’s interest13. It was found that these restraints prevent the development of new markets where an unmet demand often exists, causing artificially elevated price-levels11.

Denturism has been implemented internationally12 by Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Netherlands, New Zealand, Switzerland (6 Cantons), United Kingdom (England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Wales), and USA (6 States). Liaison through the International Federation of Denturists (IFD) has led to standardized international base-line competencies12. Countries with identified denturism-aspirations include: Belgium, Cyprus, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Kenya, Malta, Poland, Portugal, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, etc.

The profile of denture wearers is typically the elderly and underprivileged with special needs and poor socio-economic circumstances6. The drive for introduction of Denturism concerns providing equitable rehabilitation-services to the edentulous (teeth-impaired) population, which includes large numbers of the often-neglected categories of the poor and the old4. In South Africa they are currently often left with no other alternative than the unsavoury and unhygienic services of amateur backdoor “quacks”, and exposure to communicable diseases7. This initiative aims to provide an essential service to those already excluded from the market serviced by dentists, due to the high overhead costs. Competition with dentists will create downward pressure on the price of dentures, consequently enhancing affordability! Due to the training pathways and the expenses of the wide spectrum of services they provide, dentists’ fees will always be higher than denturists . With only 16% of the South African population covered by Medical Schemes, the huge majority can’t afford any dental treatment . With the need to focus the State Health Budget on more essential health priorities such as containing life-threatening communicable diseases including HIV/Aids, TB, cholera, malaria, etc, there will always be a lack of resources to fund a substantial denture service through the State . However, denture provision is one of the most basic of all oral health services. Functional dentures, or the lack thereof, affects all aspects of human functioning, nutritional health and general health7. It concerns the rehabilitation of oral function, speech, aesthetic appearance and human dignity. Denture provision is a much-needed essential service and should be recognized as a basic human right15.

The expansion of the Oral Health Team to include Denturists is effective Human Resource Development and a productive service efficiency improvement6. The introduction of Denturism provides efficient specialization for both the denturist providing removable prosthetics and also for the dentist to focus on the important role of maintaining oral health and fighting tooth decay5. The patient’s dental needs are served more efficiently, while the referral protocol remains allowing for the patient to be referred to other health professionals (when appropriate) for specialized procedures beyond the Denturist’s scope of training4.

The general view held by the dental profession is that only dentists can competently provide denture care . Conversely, proven tests of clinical competency of denturists and widespread consumer satisfaction of denturists’ services both in the legal market in Canada and the illegal market in the USA , and indeed every parts of the world where the profession has been established, are proof to the contrary.

After more than 50 years of denturist practice in both Australia and Canada, the supportive co-operation and professional interaction between dentist and denturist are praiseworthy . Both professions are integrated in the Oral Health Team with no conflict between them . It is common for New Zealand and Australian dentists to call upon denturists when they have “complications” with denture patients21. In the northwest United States in general, acceptance by dentistry has improved greatly over the past decade . Enlightened dentists view denturists as colleagues who provide competent, professional continuity of care to their patients . Denturists have also demonstrated the ability to be a source of new patients for dentists as well. Research in Finland showed that cooperation between dentists and denturists was common and reported that those oral healthcare professionals, who referred their patients to other professions, also benefited themselves by receiving more patients on referral from them24. In many dental practices, dentists simply cannot work without a denturist in the mix of services offered. It releases them from General Prosthetics and enables them to occupy their time with more financially rewarding procedures, e.g. Preventative Dentistry and Implantology21.

Professional indemnity insurance of Australian and US denturists is the lowest of any health profession, because they do their job so well that complaints are minimal compared to dentists. Denturists don’t perform any invasive procedures4. Denturism is so basic a service that it is essential in all communities, third world and developed countries alike. Denturists are the service provider of choice in poor and affluent communities11, whether provided commercially in private practice or state-supported, in both urban and rural areas. Prosthetic needs in rural areas create opportunities for partnerships between the public service and privately practicing denturists through mobile units and district clinics .

The potential benefits that the denturism-initiative holds, includes:

· Improved adherence to international norms and trends in meeting local needs.
· Improved denture care due to enhanced accessibility and affordability.
· State dependent people would have more access to basic oral health treatment services and will eat and live healthier lives, due to having functional dentures.
· More of the elderly and the poor, who can’t afford a dentist, would get oral rehabilitation.
· More oral health checks, which translate to more abnormalities referred to specialists.
· More dentist chair-time being freed for children, restorative, cosmetic and emergency oral procedures.
· Freedom of choice for denture wearers in terms of service provider options.
· More focus and benefits to the patients/customers/end-users/public/community/society.

The introduction of Denturism as an expert category, should be supported2 throughout the Commonwealth wherever there is a need for a more satisfactory denture-service at a basic level, to improve efficiency, and because it is more affordable, especially for lower income categories6

By: Tom Wilson Tom Wilson Fri, 19 Nov 2010 21:25:42 +0000 As global climate disruption and greenhouse gas emissions become increasingly urgent problems, ISC is working in the U.S. and China—the world’s two largest emitters—to help them reduce harmful greenhouse gases. Two of our major programs are the Climate Leadership Academy in the United States, and the Environment, Health and Safety (EHS) Academy in China.

Environment, Health and Safety (EHS) Academy

The EHS Academy is helping to green the international supply chain by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing energy efficiency in two of China’s most industrialized provinces, Guangdong and Jiangsu.

China recently surpassed the U.S. as the world’s largest emitter of total GHG. The EHS Academy targets China’s largest current sources of greenhouse gas emissions—the industrial and power sectors—by building the capacity of factory managers to implement management systems, measure and reduce their emissions, increase efficiency, and meet or exceed international EHS standards.

It equips trainees to move beyond auditing and cosmetic change to achieve meaningful and lasting improvements in EHS performance. An estimated 2 million metric tons of CO2 will be averted in the first three years of the EHS Academy, through resource efficiency and other interventions deployed by the factory managers. That’s the equivalent of removing all the cars from the streets of Manhattan for 2 years.

Beyond reducing GHG emissions, the EHS Academy is helping improve the human and environmental health of surrounding communities. Worker health and safety conditions are a critical component of the EHS Academy training and certifications processes. Better EHS practices also improve the health of nearby communities—and the people living within then—by reducing particulate matter in the air, preventing harmful industrial waste, and reducing the presence of toxins like lead and mercury in water supplies.

The EHS Academy in Guangdong has so far trained over 2,000 factory managers, and certified 360 as EHS professionals. An additional 2,000 managers have been reached through workshops and seminars. 90% of trainees rated the EHS Academy “excellent” or “very good,” with over 85% reporting positive changes in EHS practice as a result of their participation.

Our second EHS Academy in Jiangsu will launch in the coming months. When the two Academies are fully operational in 2012, they will train over 4,000 managers annually, and certify several thousand managers in the first three years of operation.

In addition, ISC and its partners worked directly with the Chinese government to develop China’s first-ever professional certification protocol for EHS managers. The protocol is already in place in Guangdong, and will be implemented nationwide in 2011.

For more information:

By: Tom Wilson Tom Wilson Fri, 19 Nov 2010 21:24:19 +0000 As global climate disruption and greenhouse gas emissions become increasingly urgent problems, ISC is working in the U.S. and China—the world’s two largest emitters—to help them reduce harmful greenhouse gases. Two of our major programs are the Climate Leadership Academy in the United States, and the Environment, Health and Safety (EHS) Academy in China.

Climate Leadership Academy

ISC’s Climate Leadership Academy (CLA) program helps city officials and climate practitioners accelerate local solutions to global climate disruption. ISC has organized and delivered four Climate Leadership Academy workshops, working with 42 cities and metropolitan regions and covering the following areas:

- Scaling Up Building Energy Retrofitting: Teams of senior climate, energy and economic development leaders from 16 U.S. cities learned about and strategized new ways to improve, accelerate and scale up integrated building energy retrofitting and green job creation initiatives.

- Transportation Efficiency: Teams of senior transportation, planning, energy and sustainability officials from 16 U.S. cities exchanged ideas and shared experiences in htier efforts to develop climate-friendly transportation, and advance smart growth and urban development.

- Green Job Creation: This CLA involved teams from 15 U.S. cities and metropolitan regions, working to create green jobs and develop local clean energy economies. Representatives from the business, labor, workforce development, economic development, education/training, and sustainability sectors comprised the teams.

- Climate Adaptation & Resilience: Cross-sector, inter-jurisdictional teams from 16 U.S. cities learned about and discussed promising practices in assessing, prioritizing, and addressing local climate change impacts.

In January 2011, ISC, in partnership with Living Cities, will deliver the Sustainable Communities Boot Camp, a CLA-like event for teams from 13 regions that have won grants under the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s Sustainable Communities Regional Planning Grant Program.

For more information please visit:

By: Christopher Barlow Christopher Barlow Fri, 19 Nov 2010 17:06:55 +0000 Why Innovation Begins Locally

Through collaboration with the Chinese central, provincial, and county level governments, ILS has actively helped modernize land records in rural China. Recently I was requested to summarize our achievements for a meeting with China’s Ministry of Agriculture. My conclusion is that local cooperation and good communication are the most important achievements of this project. These are key ingredients in what ILS calls our Innovation Cycle.
Our task in China is to implement improved land information management systems. Implementations in more than 30 countries worldwide have taught us that one size doesn’t fit all when it comes to managing land information.

Innovation occurs by introducing ideas, discussing those ideas, testing them, and then coming back to further refine the new concepts. This is our Innovation Cycle. And this cycle is not only relevant to information technology but to all aspects of a land information system — the registry process and workflows, institutional learning, and capacity enhancement.

Much innovation in China occurred initially by improving the process of land registry. ILS introduced international experiences. County, township, and village governments introduced their own processes and practices. We then discussed these ideas, and together tested them, and are now working to refine and improve the applied technology and processes.

One process innovation created locally in China is to have village committees collect household information and then match households to parcels. This saved an enormous amount of time and effort, increased process efficiency, and resolved land disputes early in the registry process.

This innovation cycle may sound rudimentary, but the practice is far from simple. Listening is an art and is a core element of any creative process. Based on the idea that each location is unique, ILS puts great emphasis on designing software that is globally applicable, but locally configurable. This is what we’re continuously learning by applying the Innovation Cycle locally.

Christopher Barlow is ILS’ Project Manager for the China Rural Land Registration and Certification Program. He lives and works in Hefei, capital of Anhui Province, China.

By: Donna Goodman Donna Goodman Fri, 19 Nov 2010 16:53:48 +0000 [img][/img]

Integrated school programmes that combine environmentally friendly facilities-based solutions with participatory curriculum to engage teachers, students and the community at large are largely overlooked in efforts to meet MDG 7. Today’s children represent approximately one third of the global population, yet climate change and environmental plans and budgets rarely include education and funds for youth participation and development as a key strategy. Earth Child Institute is dedicated to advocating for this change at policy level and implementing capacity development programmes in the developing world.

Our 2.2 Billion: The Power of One Child + One Tree = A Sustainable Future for All is designed to highlight the linkages between the sustainability and health of the physical environmetn and child health. Planting trees, school gardens (for locally available healthy food) and access to safe water and sanitation combined with child-centred lifeskills based participatory approaches can take us further and faster to meet the goals. Resources are critically needed to fund action resource projects at communtiy level to substantiate these claims and to associate this evidence with Article 6 of the Climate Change convention, Agenda 21 (in the context of Rio+20) and in all environmental platforms moving forward.

By: Khazali Allen Khazali Allen Fri, 19 Nov 2010 04:18:45 +0000 Target population

The unemployment District rural population with skills in: subsistence farming, construction work, plumbing, environmental technology, Nurses, research, lab work, Landscaping, waterworks technology, food chain and labor work, Small Business Farmers Cooperatives, Schools, Hospital and Clinics.

$2,000,000 National Environmental Service Agency- Grant proposal, for Mother & Child health, through pollution prevention and disease control in Sierra Leone West Africa
A Non Governmental Organization initiative, to use best Technologies, to curb pollution, Diseases and polluted water use and, to provide nutritional food for communities in Sierra Leone- West Africa, using and generating Thousands of employment opportunities for the local labor force per District


The National Environmental Services Agency (NESA) intends to establish a private environmental Service Agency with Headquarters in Bo- Sierra Leone West Africa, with Branches in other Districts. The initiative enjoys the support and collaboration with Resident National and International Sierra Leonean Professionals, who desires an establishment and, properly managed water, sanitation, pest control and food needs and services for the Sierra Leonean community. An advisory Board of Director and management team are selected professionals from respective fields of, Engineering, Environmental Technology, Geology, Chemistry, Education, Community economic development and Healthcare. The Board is looking forward to partner and collaborate with, other Professionals, Non-Governmental Organizations and the Government of Sierra Leone for the expressed purpose. The Board will seek for resources, solicit Investors willing to invest in Sierra Leone or, Donors willing to fund environmental Health and safety Programs, medical Drugs, sanitation material needs, pest control and, portable water supply material needs for Sierra Leone


Advocate for social environmental justice for poor communities with little, or no sanitation, water and, waste management services in Sierra Leone. Establish an alternative mechanical borehole water supply and septic systems for Homeowners, Institutions, public Places and, provide affordable waste management and, pest control services. Collaborate with the Sierra Leone Government and the Health and Sanitation Department, to register and contract health and sanitation material supply biddings for the expressed purpose. Will apply and pursue Government & Philanthropic grant application proposal funding, for community sanitation services. The object and reason for the initiative is, for the expressed purpose of establishing and implementing a comprehensive waste management, disease control, recycling, Pest control and, develop alternative water supply services for Sierra Leone – West Africa, to reverse current trends, in mortality percentage rate (Table I) in Sierra Leone. Sierra Leone is annually losing a huge percentage of future valuable Human resource capital needs for development in the 21st Century. World and Philanthropic (Aide) invisible Hands, is not the answer. NESA’S objective and goals are solution oriented.

• To introduce and implement a comprehensive environmental Health & Sanitation activities in Sierra Leone
• Establish waste Transfer Station sites in every District, for waste recycling activities.
• Provide portable water to District clinics, educational Institutions, District administrative headquarters and markets, through drilling mechanical water borehole and, gravity water supply methods.
• Establish and facilitate septic system use, to minimize Stream and traditional pit latrine uses.
• Establish and immediately implement a District wide Pest control program, for the termination and control of Mosquitoes, the African Black Fly, house Flies, and other Disease carrying Vectors at Urban, Rural, Industrial Farmland and River Basin settings in Sierra Leone.
• Partner with sponsors / Investors, to facilitate water and sanitation services at former (26) War Camp Sites and host communities, with a view to providing water, pest control and sewer facilities and, to provide access to waste dumpsters for containment and management of waste.
• Solicit Investors, to contract the supply of medical instruments and drugs for Hospital and Clinics in Sierra Leone.
• Solicit and advocate for Industrial wastewater technologies, for treatment of Gold, Rutile, Iron Ore and Bauxite Lab & Mine process wastewater and, advocate for acquisition of autoclaves and generators for medical waste treatment.
• To reverse these unacceptable mortalities to manageable rates by 2020
• Nearly 1.5 thousand women die during childbirth.
• Neonatal mortality rate: 56 per 1000 live births
• 8% Infant mortality rate: 158 per 1000 live births
• Under five mortality rate: 267 per 1000 live births
• Maternal mortality ratio: 1,300 per 100 000 live births
• Support subsistence farming for women
• Provide portable water
• Encourage clean hygiene practices
• Encourage use of new technologies for pollution control
• Generate employment for the rural poor


Lack of sustainable portable water supply
Known contamination of surface & ground water source points, are very apparent in Sierra Leone and sadly, is the only source of drinking water for 63 % of the population of Sierra Leone. In general, traditional water wells and so called “protected “water well systems in Sierra Leone, are considered helpful but, polluted and obsolete. Depleting Reservoirs, water supply Lakes, gravity water Infrastructure after eleven years of Civil conflict needs immediate rehabilitation. Current water supply in the Capital City of Freetown is not sustainable. Global warming, deforestation, urban population increases, are slowly having impact on the water resources of Sierra Leone. 70 % of the population (Rural) drinks from surface water flows. (See water supply Pie distribution). The Department of Health & Sanitation, in collaboration with UNICEF each year undertakes mass chlorination of water wells throughout the country because of, groundwater pollution seepage into water wells from point source and, non point sources, as a “solution”.


Lack of sustainable sanitary waste management at District level
Sierra Leone has no comprehensive Landfill infrastructure. Domestic and Industrial open dump waste disposal methods, has pollution implications. Seepages from Urban and Rural landfills are not comprehensively managed. Urban agriculture has become common practice in Sierra Leone. It is usually done on landfill sites, using hazardous water for irrigation. It is one of the major factors contributing to the increase in cholera mortality rate in the Country. Growing urban population close to landfill sites are using contaminated water and old fertilizers to grow and irrigate crops and vegetables Farmlands on unhealthy soils, yielding unhealthy crops for market. Latrines are at the receiving end of storm and Rain water runoffs. Urban agriculture is done on Landfills to grow vegetables for city markets. Bo City (second largest city) has an unofficial site in the centre of the city adjacent to a agricultural flood plains. This dump is continually on fire and is home to scavengers and urban agriculturists. The second site is presently used for both solid household waste and sewage disposal, at a floodplain and River Basin of the Sewa River from where, the city gets “portable” water.
No sustainable Pest control activity
Malaria mortality in Sierra Leone has to be controlled. Mosquito nets and Drugs are not first step solutions. Onchociasis- If Sierra Leone does not get funding for the acquisition of Vector (The African Black fly) Pest control materials; half of the population (3, 000,000) will be at risk of going legally blind by year 2010. (Helen Keller International).
Burning of hazardous waste .with poor containment and disposal methods
Non conventional recycling before disposal of hazardous waste is a great threat to public health and the environment in Sierra Leone. Saturated toxic substances have found their way in streams, water wells and, wetlands, used as “portable water” and agricultural land for food production. Improper disposal and can cause numerous threats to the public health and environment. Improperly managed or disposed wastes can lead to ground or surface water pollution, air pollution, poisoning via the food chain, and poisonings to human beings through direct contact. All hazardous waste, together with domestic waste, are dumped down city drains, hauled to landfills for incineration or, dumped in backyards or open spaces. Some of the toxic effects on human health include cancer, birth defects, reproductive anomalies, brain and kidney damage and, skin, lung, heart disease and TB.
No sustainable use of new Technologies, for Industrial & Lab wastewater process treatment in Sierra Leone

Sierra Leone Industries (mining, refinery, healthcare & sanitation, agriculture) are not in compliance with (World Bank) International regulations for process wastewater discharges. There are no consistent sample test records for the Nations surface and groundwater resource sampling and testing. There are no Monthly check list of sampling records available for these pollutants in our Streams and River Basins.

Pollutant Limit

PH 6 – 9
BOD 50mg/
Oil and Grease 20mg/
Total Suspended Solids 50mg/
Designated mixing zone receiving waters 28oC
Arsenic 1.0mg/
Cadmium 0.1mg/
Chromium, Hexavalent 0.05mg/
Chromium, Total 1.0mg/
Copper 0.3mg/
Iron/Total 2.0mg/
Lead 0.6mg/
Mercury 0.002mg/
Nickel 0.5mg/
Zinc 1.0mg/

Hunger and Nutrition
Hunger, health and, malnutrition impact on women and children in Sierra Leone has now reached a challenging state. Making, single women in food production and marketing at abandoned war camp settlements and host communities, part of the solution to keep women and children food independent in Sierra Leone. In 2008, Sierra Leone ranked 84 out of 88 countries in the Global Hunger Index and last out of 179 countries in the Human Development Index. 40% of all children (under- Five) are chronically undernourished which puts them at high risk to never develop their full physical and, mental potential- WFP
Project implementation methodology

Excessive Insecticide spraying of all water Bodies (river basin, mining ponds, reservoirs, swamp rice farms, sewage ponds, bays, estuaries) to terminate Vector breeding grounds. A tank mounted sprayer on trucks, handles any big spraying jobs, with its 200-gallon capacity and dependable diaphragm pump. It comes with 300-ft. hose and spray gun, for (water body and forest) long reach arrears. For residential and office pest control spraying, a chemical backpack sprayer (4 Gallon, 60 PSI, High-density polythene tank) will be used by skilled technicians
Sewage installation and services, with cleaning and decontamination. Establish accounts for Sewage suction services and pluming. Make available, septic material supplies. Recommend site selection and oversee drain field construction.
Supply of waste skips at sub division level with, hazardous Bins and Bio waste materials to Bo Government Hospitals and all periphery clinics. Establish a waste transfer Station for waste containment, segregation and recycling activities and, maintain a two-Day Week collection schedules, or, as required from time to time. Implement disinfestations of waste deposit area.
Provide economic and social service to improvement social status of community residents with poor water supply, sanitation, disease control and prevention services, at host and displaced Camps, vulnerable to malnutrition, disease infection that has led to poor reproductive outcomes for mothers. Activities will allow women to provide for basic food nutrients, for their families in post-conflict situations. Food will be available at lower cost for all. This investment will gradually replace temporal Philanthropic humanitarian food Aid, with real investment development Aid that will lead women to independence and sole proprietorships in the country. Subsistence urban agriculture will now be managed on lands zoned for farming, with little or no effect on food borne diseases on food bound for public markets. There will be guarantees for Infrastructural development for Inland swamps development (alternative to Upland farming deforestation), with warehouse, Cold storage water supply and utilities, sewerage, Mill and, Labor training.
New technologies for Industrial wastewater treatment and disposal are highly recommended.NESA will partner with mining & manufacturing Companies to acquire best use technologies for wastewater processing, making sure waste discharges are routinely monitored and, samplings of water resources are done in timely manner. Coordination of these Industries health and safety program and standards of operation with our Agency operations are paramount to this operation.
Use of new technology, to do on-site autoclaving (steam sterilization.) by pressure cooking medical waste at high temperatures exceeding 200°F for an extended period of time, killing pathogens and rendering the waste sterile. This alternative will significantly reduce air and water pollution.
To promote use auto and Industrial oil recycling in Sierra Leone, providing convenient collection sites (Transfer stations) for the purpose of keeping used oil sludge out of Sierra Leones waterways and ground water supplies and, to eliminate breathable incineration emission of (heavy metals, chlorine, fluorine, bromine) health effect hazards. Provide oil recycling technology to re- refine waste oil for use as lubricating and fuel oil. Batteries are collected at various transfer stations in the country and, sent to a Facility where they undergo reclamation by skilled technicians. Batteries are latter shredded and, toxic substances separated before recycling by a shredding hammer process and, pyro-metallurgical procedure. If new recycling technologies are. Moldering and smelting Industries with, new technology are not currently available. Collection of all used electronics should be encouraged. Drop off stations are to be located from where, skilled Technicians will segregate and store items for shipment to neighboring States for recycling. NESA will pay money for every used tire and other hazardous waste recovered and brought to a transfer waste station to be recycled and reused.
Medical waste
Hospitals Sharps containers
Clinics Bio waste bins
Pharmacies Autoclaves
Dispensaries 100KVA Generators
Waste management
PPES Gloves, wipes, bags, scrubbers, respirators
Domestic waste Waste collection Trucks
Transfer stations, Homes Skips, Bins, storage
Heavy machinery Caterpillar / Backhoe
Domestic wastewater Private sewage septic const. materials
Sewage sewage suction Trucks
Mining Ind.
Gold, Bauxite, Rutile and Iron Ore process wastewater Process wastewater Tech.
Mine pit drainage Water bailing Pumps
Portable Water supply Private in ground water pump water supply
In- house borehole well Borehole drilling Truck
Gravity water supply Rehabilitation
water pipes PVC pipes & Accessories
Private water supply In ground Electrical Pumps
instruments Water testing Instruments
Pest/ Vector control
African Black Fly Mobile truck sprayer (100 gal.)
Mosquitoes 5 Gal. Backpack sprayer
Bugs Disinfectants
Cockroaches Insecticides
House Flies Pesticides
Termites Chemicals

Future funding
There are many opportunities for future revenue leveraging. Individual Households in Urban sub divisions will have the option to choose between Town water and affordable private water, to satisfy their domestic water needs. Request for septic systems construction and services for homes will be done for affordable rates. Community Centers, businesses, Schools and Public Facilities, will have the opportunity to go septic, with guarantee for sanitary clean ups. The Board is putting plans together to promote environmental education for employees, providing basic environmental Technical skills for construction and maintenance of septic and private water wells, waste management and recycling, to provide professional skilled services to clientele. Anticipating Government financial subscription, for construction, drilling of private well water supply for Schools, Diplomatic Missions and other Government owned Facilities, will contribute to the Agency annual revenue. The Nations Health, Water and Sanitation contract material supply Biddings will also be a major revenue earner for the Agency. Pest control unit of NESA will apply and register client’s accounts for the termination of bugs, the African Black Fly, mosquitoes and, Termite on Public and Private Properties. Foreign Embassies and Foreign Residencies, Banks and Mining Companies will have to pay cost for pest termination and other services. The Agency is looking forward to collaborating and negotiating with the Government of Sierra Leone, and the Department of Health & Sanitation, to contract Regional domestic waste collection, containment and disposal on contract basis. NESA will apply recommended environmentally friendly disinfestations, after every clean up, to satisfy customer expectations. The NESA envisages future growth, in area of recycling of sludge oil from energy Plants and Industries and, will collaborate with Government to contract, the recycling of used oil sludge, tires, plastics, scrap Iron, computers, Paint, used batteries and, Lead & asbestos waste materials that do not belong in Sierra Leone Landfills. NESA will recommend and advocate for best technologies, to recycle used items to protect community health, land resources through recovery and re-use methods.
Khazali Allen, BA Global Environmental Studies.

By: Khazali Allen Khazali Allen Fri, 19 Nov 2010 04:10:30 +0000 Raising funds for an International Outreach Organization for a School and Maternal Clinic in Bo Sierra Leone- West Africa. I am privately working on a Grant proposal to improve environmental health and sanitation and provission for basic neutritional food needs for Sierra Leone. I am in quest for International funders. I am attaching the Millennium Development Goal abstract for Sierra Leone, the School and Clinic Project papers with, my Grant Proposal, which I personally believe will help speed up Millennium Development Goals. Your advise and recommendations or help towards my Project is appreciated.
[file] – Sierra Leone, June 2010 – a set on Flickr.mht[/file]

By: Dr Nnadozie Isinguzo Dr Nnadozie Isinguzo Thu, 18 Nov 2010 17:57:40 +0000 Last year 2009, NESREA-National Environmental Standards & Regulations Enforcement Agency, an agency of the Ministry of Environment in cooperation with UNDP commisioned DOTECON NIGERIA LIMITED to prepare a Comprehensive Environmental Public Awareness Master Plan (EPAMP) with these objectives:
To develop a comprehensive Environmental Public Awareness Master Plan (EPAMP) for compliance monitoring and enforcement with comprehensive action plan with time frames including monitoring and feedback mechanism to reinforce the efforts of NESREA to increase environmental awareness in the country. Also to propose effective mechanism for coordinating and funding of environmental awareness programmes in the country and develop strategies for effective information dissemination on environmental awareness in the short, medium and long-term basis.

This work was completed and submitted to NESREA and UNDP with the following recommendations;

NESREA should study this Master Plan carefully to understand how it will be guided it to achieve the objectives of EPAMP.

NESREA should extract the key environmental issues (learning events) and cascade them to required NESREA staff on a need to know basis.

NESREA is required to extract and implement annually, programs from the list of Environmental Action Plan enumerated in Chapter Eight.

NESREA should commence implementation of Short Term remedial action program to address national environmental issues mitigation or intervention within three months of acknowledging this report. The Medium and Long Term programs can run parallel with short term programs.

NESREA should seek support of Government and accredited Consultants in her pursuit to regulate and enforce compliance standards in all environmental fields.

NESREA should enforce environmental regulation and standards with emphasis on environmental best practices and technology.

NESREA should advocate the inclusion of compulsory program and curriculum of environmental science and management studies for Secondary and Primary schools curriculum as the foundation for environmental issues awareness in Nigeria.

NESREA should facilitate the enactment of stringent environmental pollution laws especially for air, water and soil environments with realistic penalties that will meaningfully correct or compensate the damage on the environment

NESREA should recruit experienced staff to supervise compliance monitoring and enforcement of environmental regulation and standards in private and public sector business environment.

NESREA should utilize the services of registered Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) and accredited consultants to execute EPAMP and other environmental programs in the country.

NESREA should set up an Inter-Ministerial Committee to facilitate decision making and fund raising to prosecute her environmental programs.

To the best of our knowledge, NESREA is strategically working with UNDP and other Government and Non Governmental Organization to create grass root environmental awareness on applicable environmental issues in Nigeria. The action plans put together by DOTECON are implementable and measureable on short, medium and long term basis. By accepting to work the plan, this particular Agency is on the right track to achieving a lot of the MDG proposals.
Details of this report can be received from Director General and Chief Executive Officer of NESREA.
[img] jotter, book, poster, 4[1].jpg[/img]

By: Rajeevan Moothal Rajeevan Moothal Thu, 18 Nov 2010 15:26:32 +0000 Environmental sustainability can be assurd only by spiritual and ethical education to the rural and urban masses. It is not just edcating , but ensuring that everyone practise it in everydays life. There are no mechanism to do this work. ALl CDm and JI mechanisms are jsut vague ideas compared to educating the masses, who ultimately supass you and I’s contribution for pollution and exploitation, if undelivered.
So educate the masses and also the rural population the so called scientist, teacher and all otehrs to leave smoking, drinking and slepp optimum and use minimum technology like dependency on vehicles of private , etc and contribut real sustainability lessons to the world by your self. Otherwise please don’t talk and show charts, all leds to bullshitness unless you and I practise it in every moment of life. I do it every moment, that is why I preach. I turned out to be a vegetarian to stop animal killking and also avoid private and never have a own vehicle, even if I could buy one.
Do it in your life! The talk. Like Mahatma Gandhi. Or Swami Vivekananda.
See the selfless efforts in Ethiopia and looking for similar minded people for real community work in anywhere!!
Rajeevan M.